CÔ ĐỘC VIÊN (vườn Cấp Cô Độc): See Kỳ Thụ
Cấp Cô Độc Viên
CHỈNH (sắp lại):(1) Arrange, adjust,
coordinate, regulate. To put right, to set in
order, make neat, straighten out. (2) The
CHỦ:(1) Chủ nhân: Lord, master, owner,
host. A ruler; to act as lord. (2) Chủ
yếu: To value, to place importance on.
CHỦ BẠN:(1) Chính và phụ: Chief and
attendant; principal and secondary, host and
guest. (2) Phật và đệ tử: The Buddha and
CHỦ TỂ:(1) Supervisor, chairman,
director, controller. Supervision, management.
(2) A term for tathaagata. (3) A
reference to the imaginary position of an
arbitrarily conceived self.
CỬU TẬP (tu tập lâu dài, tu đă lâu): A
veteran practitioner. One who has done religious
practice for a long time and accumulated merit.
CỬU CAO: (1) The “nine marshes" --hell,
the underworld. (2) A deep swamp; a deep
marshland. A metaphor for a deep, distant place.
CỬU THỨ ĐỆ ĐỊNH (9 cấp thiền định): The
nine graduated concentrations'. Concentration in
which the practitioner progresses successively
through the 'four meditations' -Tứ Thiền, the
'four formless concentrations' -Tứ Vô Sắc Định,
and the 'concentration of extinction' -Diệt Tận
CỬU PHẨM LIÊN ĐÀI (9 phẩm văng sinh):
Nine levels of practitioners reborn in the Pure
Land, occupying nine levels of Lotus Seats.
According to the Quán Vô Lượng Thọ Kinh these
are categorized as: the best of the best,
middling of the best, least of the best; best of
the middling, middling of the middling and least
of the middling; best of the least, middling of
the least and least of the least. (naka p="257")
CỬU CƯ: An abbreviation for Cửu hữu t́nh
CỬU HỮU T̀NH CƯ (9 thế giới, chỗ cư trú của
chúng sinh): Nine abodes of sentient beings
as listed in the Abhidharmako`sa-bhaasya. In Dục
Giới -the desire realm, human existence. In Sắc
Giới -the form realm, Chúng, Cực Quang Tịnh,
Biến Tịnh and the four no-thought heavens. In Vô
Sắc Giới - the formless realm, the locus of
unlimited space, the locus of unlimited
consciousness, the locus of objectlessness and
the locus of neither-thought-nor-no-thought. (naka
CỬU THỨC (thức thứ 9): The Ninth
Consciousness, which was added to the eight
consciousnesses posited by the school of
Consciousness-only. Schools such as Hua-yen and
T'ien-t'ai posited this as Bạch Tịnh Thức -an
undefiled immaculate (amala) consciousness.
CỬU LIÊN: An abbreviation of Cửu phẩm
Liên Đài “nine lotus stands" representing nine
possible levels of rebirth for Pure Land
CÀN (KIỀN) [tên của 1 trong 8 quẻ của Kinh
Dịch ]: (1) Dry, dried up, dry up. (2)
Clear, exhausted. (3) In name only.
(4) Sky, heaven. (5) Prince, ruler,
emperor. (6) The NW direction. (7)
The first hexagram (pure yang). (8)
CUNG (CÚNG):(1) Offer, sacrifice,
dedicate. (2) Present, submit, serve.
(3) Accompany. (4) Offering. (5)
CUNG DƯỠNG (cúng dường ):(1) 'Offering
and sustaining;' (puujaa). An offering of food,
drink, clothing etc., to a buddha, monk,
teacher, ancestor etc. (2) A special
commemorative service held to mark such things
as the construction of a temple or statue or the
completion of the copying of a suutra.
CÂU (cùng với, cùng nhau, cùng lúc):(1)
Together with.. (sardham, sahita). (2)
Both, two things together (ubhaya). (3)
Bound together (samyuta). (4) Produced,
or born together. (5) Simultaneous(ly) (samam).
CÂU SINH CHƯỚNG: (trở ngại có từ khi sinh
ra, có saün): 'Simultaneously produced
hindrances,' a term used by the school of
Consciousness-only. Hindrances that arise
simultaneously with the mind. In the attachment
to self, there is attachment due to
discriminating a self through thought. Yet even
when purposely suppressing this kind of thought,
there is a spontaneously arisen attachment to
self. Even though one is trying not to give rise
to such thought and trying to suppress the
self-view, still an attachment to self arises.
This is what is called “arising together with
the mind." This arising occurs in the seventh
consciousness as well as the sixth
consciousness. It is said that the seeds
produced by this hindrance are different from
those produced by the 'discriminated arising' -
Phân biệt chướng hindrance. Since the
discriminated arising hindrance is cut off when
one awakens to the principle of dependent
origination, they are cut off at one time during
the 'seeing of the way' - Kiến đạo. However, the
hindrance of simultaneous arising is habituated,
so even if one understands the principle of the
Way, the hindrance will still arise. Since the
habituated nature has developed, one must
repeatedly practice the contemplation of
dependent origination in order to cut off this
CỤ (đồ vật, đầy đủ):(1) To have, to own,
be prepared with, endowed with, equipped with.
(2) To prepare, get ready, equip. (3)
A tool, a utensil. (4) Function,
activity. (5) Together with.
CỤ GIỚI ĐỊA (địa thứ 2 trong Thập địa):
The stage of the full possession of discipline.
The second of the ten bhuumis - Thập địa. Also
called -Ly cấu địa
CỤ TÚC (đầy đủ, hoàn toàn):(1) Be endowed
with, be provided with; be prepared, possess,
have Bị: ["ơ]. (upeta, sampad). (2) To be
fully furnished, be complete, lacking nothing.
(3) Perfection, completion (paripuurna).
(4) In detail, with great care;
completely. (5) The endowment of the
practitioner with the precepts of the order.
(6) Implement, tool, utensil. (7) The
complete set of precepts given to the monk or
nun who enters the order.
CỤ TRẦN (tŕnh bày đầy đủ, chi tiết): To
describe in detail.
CHẾ (chế ngự, làm chủ):(1) Suppress,
restrain. (2) Govern, rule. (3) To
stop, to end.
CƯƠNG (cứng, quan trọng, vừa mới):(1)
Hard, severe, strong, unyielding, enduring.
(2) Popular, flourishing. (3) Really,
truly, exactly. (4) Right now, soon.
CÔNG:(1) Merits, meritorious deeds;
success, credit, honor. (2) Skill,
ability, effectiveness, efficacy. (3)
CÔNG ĐỨC:(1) Excellent virtue, merit;
meritorious virtue(s), valuable quality (guna).
(2) Blessedness, virtue, fortune,
goodness (punya). (3) The causes of good
destiny; virtuous roots. (4) Good
actions, practices. (5) Great power.
(6) The necessary materials for attaining
the Buddha's enlightenment.
CÔNG DỤNG:(1) Effort. (2) The
function of bodily action, speech and thought (vyaapaara).
(3) Function, activity, ability (saamarthya).
(4) The efficacy of practice.
CẦN (siêng năng): (1) To endeavor,
strive, work. (2) Diligent, industrious,
willing to toil. (3) To encourage labor.
(4) To aid. (5) To be tired out.
CẦN TU (tu hành siêng năng): (1)
To endeavor; to practice with vigor (prayujyate).
CẦN KHỒ:(1) To exert oneself, endeavor,
strive. (2) The suffering and pain of the
world. Difficult exertion; penance; austerities.
CHỮ VẠN: Ten thousand-Vạn (muôn). All
things, especially used in Buddhism.
CHIÊM (bói toán), đọc là CHIẾM (chiếm cứ):(1)
To occupy. (2) To divine; divination.
CHIÊM SÁT (bói toán): A method of
divination in the Esoteric School, done using
the Sanskrit letter “a.”
CHIÊM SÁT KINH (tên kinh): The full name
of this text is Ch'an-cha shan-o yeh-pao ching -Chiêm
Sát Thiện Aùc Nghiệp Báo kinh T
839.17.901c-910c. This text teaches the method
of determining the effects of good and bad karma
in the first fascicle, and in the second
fascicle gives an explanation of the true
meaning of Mahaayaana, comparable to the
philosophy of the Awakening of Faith. Because of
the content and writing style, it is thought
that this text was originally composed in East
Asia, rather than India.
MĂO (chi thứ 4 trong 12 địa chi. Giờ Măo từ 5
-7 giờ sáng):(1) The (4th) astrological sign
of the Rabbit; east; 5-7 a.m. (2) To grow
thick, be overgrown; luxuriant. (3) A
hole for a cog or pivot
CÁT TẠNG (tên người): Chi-tsang
(549-623), A San-lun -Tam Luận tông master, who
parents came from Parthia. He became a novice
under Tao-lang at the age of seven, and as he
grew up, he became renowned for his extensive
learning, especially concerning the Maadhyamika
school. He lectured on Maadhyamika scriptures
and wrote commentaries on them, thus
consolidating the foundations of the San-lun
sect. As he lived for some time at Chia-hsiang
Temple -Cát Tường tự, he was popularly called
the 'Great Master Chia-hsiang.' His San-lun
hsu"an-i -Tam Luận Huyền Nghĩa ('Essentials of
the Three Discourses'), one fascicle, is a
useful compendium of the San-lun doctrine. He
also wrote three commentaries on the Lotus
CÁO (báo cho biết, nói cho biết):(1) To
address, to tell, to talk, say, speak; teach,
inform, report, enlighten; to announce to.
(2) To make an accusation. (3) It is
used in the scriptures where the Buddha is
teaching his disciples. It has the connotation
of speaking in a big voice to a large audience.
CHÂU (CHU) (một ṿng, tṛn, phổ quát, phổ
biến):(1) Around, go around, send around,
revolve, circle. (2) Round. (3)
Universal, all-embracing, pervasive. To function
universally. (3) To reach, to extend to;
the ultimate. (4) Unselfish, honest,
sincere; not crooked.
CHÂU BIẾN (khắp cả, khắp nơi): Extensive,
universal. Extensively, or universally going and
CỬU (lỗi lầm):(1) Fault, blame, mistake,
error, offense, sin (dosa). (2) Blame,
censure, reprimand, find fault with, rebuke;
CHÚ:(1) A curse, imprecation, damnation;
to curse, to damn. (2) Charm, spell,
incantation, mantra, dhaarani.
CÚ (câu, uốn cong): (1) A phrase,
a verse, a written line. (2) Bend, curve,
CÚ THÂN (một thuật ngữ trong Duy thức học,
chỉ một trong 25 yếu tố không liên hệ với tâm):
One of the twenty-four elements not concomitant
with mind in Consciousness-only theory. The
gathering of two or more phrases.
CẤU (Dơ, không sạch):(1) Dirt, filth (mala).
(2) A term for defilement. The quality of
defilements being impurity, they permeate the
mind and taint it. (3) An abbreviation of
fan-nao-kou -Phiền năo cấu, the 'six filths'
which are produced from original defilement.
They are vexation -Năo, harming -Hại, resentment
-Hận, flattery -Siểm, deception -Cuống, and
CHẤP (Bám chặt): 'Attachment'. Deluded
attachment to things. (abhinive`sa).
CHẤP TR̀ (Nắm giữ):(1) The function of
the mind to perceive anything as its object.
(2) A firm, unscattered mind of faith or
concentration. (3) To hold something in
the hand. (4) The seventh consciousness.
CHẤP TRƯỚC (Bám chấp, vướng mắc):
'attachment'. Holding to things and being unable
to let go. Grasping. To think about something
and be unable to forget about it
CẢNH:(1) Object, objective (the external
realm's) existence. Phenomena, appearance.
Thing(s), affairs. That which is apprehended and
discerned by the mind and sense-organs. The term
generally refers to the objects that give rise
to the cognitive activity of the six organs;
thus the six objective realms - Lục cảnh. Since
these are what defile the human mind, the term -
Trần or “dust" is also used interchangeably with
Cảnh (visaya, gocara, artha). (2)
Object(s) of cognition. The objects of value
judgments; synonymous. with Sở thủ. (3)
The objects of the five faculties, thus a
reference to the five objective realms. When the
mind-objects are added, there are six realms, as
mentioned above. (4) The discernment of
the Buddha's dharma, the object of excellent
wisdom. (5) Mental state or condition;
sphere, viewpoint. (6) In
Consciousness-only theory the three kinds of
objects that are discriminated by their
qualities. These are: 'real objects' -Tánh cảnh;
'image-only objects' -Độc ảnh cảnh; and
'archetypical objects'-Đới chất cảnh. (7)
World, realm. Objective realm. (8)
Boundary, limit, frontier, environment,
CẢNH THƯỢNG ( Hoàn cảnh, môi trường):
Within the world.
CẢNH GIỚI (Quan điểm, chỗ hiểu, nhận thức,
cảnh vật):(1) Sphere,state, viewpoint (visaya,
gocara). (2) Object(s) perceived by the
sensory and perceptive organs. The sphere of
cognition. (visaya, j~neya). (3) Sphere,
realm, place. (4) Feeling, sensation,
mood. Mental state. Condition, state, situation.
(5) The resultant condition each being
ends up in according to their actions: 'fruit,'
'reward,' '-hood.' (6) One's area of
specialization; one's own limits.
CẢNH KHÔNG THỨC HỮU(Cảnh th́ không có, thức
th́ có. // Cảnh không, thức co.ù): The
“objective realm is empty, consciousness
CẢNH THỨC CÂU DẪN (Cảnh và thức đều dẹp [bỏ]):
“Object and consciousness are both denied”.
CUNG (cung điện, một nốt nhạc Tàu xưa):(1)
A palace; a temple. A home or dwelling. (2)
The first note in the ancient Chinese musical
CƯ (ở):(1) To be. To dwell, to remain, to
be in. To be situated in a certain place Tồn (u`sati).
(2) To abide, to live at. Ones abode;
residence. (3) A place, a scene. To
place; to put into place. While being in a
certain place.. (4) To sit. (5) To
occupy; one's occupation. (6) Bent on; to
put into practice.
CƯ SĨ:(1) A householder, a man of wealth.
(2) In classical China, an unemployed
scholar. A retired scholar; an official out of
office. (3) In the Indian caste system,
the vai`sya, or merchant/artisan class. (4)
A lay religious practitioner.
CỰ HẢI (biển lớn): “Great sea" or “great
ocean." (mahaa-ar.nava, udadhi).
CHI (phân ra, cành, ngành): (1) To
branch off, to separate. (2) A branch.
(3) A limb (arm or leg). (4) To pay;
CHI PHÂN (một ngành): (anga). A part, a
limb, a section.
CHI KHIÊM (tên người): Lokak.sema,
translator of the Vimalakiirti-nirde`sa-suutra.
CÂU THI NA: See next Câu Thi Na Yết La-Kushinagara.
CÂU THI NA YẾT LA (địa danh): Ku`sinagara.
A capital city in the ancient state of Magadha
of central India. In the north part of the city
was `Saala forest, where `Saakyamuni passed into
CHỈ (chỉ, ngón tay, ư chỉ):(1) Finger.
(2) To point, esp. with the finger. (3)
Gist, point, reason. The heart of.
CHỈ SỰ (tên sách): The oldest Japanese
commentary on the Wu-chiao chang -Ngũ giáo
chương (Wu-chiao chang). Its full title is Hoa
Nghiêm Ngũ Giáo Chương Chỉ Sự, 6 fasc., by Thọ
Linh. T 2337.72.201-220.
CHỈ NAM (chỉ về hướng Nam, chỉ dẫn): To
teach, guide, instruct. Literally “point South"
is derived from the indication of a compass.
CHỈ TRÍCH:(1) To point out. (2)
CHỈ KHÔNG (tên người): Chih-k'ung(?-1363)
An Indian meditation master who traveled to East
Asia, and had a strong influence on Korean Seon.
He became a monk at an early age and studied
Buddhism in various places during his travels.
He eventually settled in Yang-chou at Yen-ching,
where he became involved with Korean monks such
as Hyegeun. Because of these contacts he
eventually traveled and taught in Korea.
CHẤN (chấn hưng, chấn động):(1) Wave,
wag, swing, shake. (2) Wield, brandish.
(3) Jilt, reject, be jilted, be rejected.
(4) Be invigorated, be spirited,
flourish. To excite into action. (5) To
relieve, to save. (6) To receive, to
contain. quake, vibrate.
CẦM (bắt, nắm):(1) To capture, seize,
grasp, grab. (2) A captive.)
CẦM TÚNG (bắt thả, nắm buông): To capture
and release, grasp and let go.
CỨ (nương cậy, chứng cớ, nắm giữ):(1) To
receive. (2) To rely on, lean on.
Evidence, proof, according to. (3) To
occupy, to take possession. To take in the hand.
To lay hold of, to grasp.
CỨ TỌA (ng̣i yên, chỉ thái độ khẳng định):(1)
To slightly move one's seat. (2) To sit
in a chair.
CỬ (nâng lên, đề bạt, nêu ra, cử chỉ):(1)
To lift up, to advance, to praise, to recommend,
to elevate. To move in an upward direction.
(2) To initiate, to move, to bring forward,
make effort, strive for. (3) All, the
whole. (4) To plan, erect, project.
Behavior, actions. (5) To join in an
effort; to meet together. (6) To cite.
(7) To “offer" or “bring up" or “raise" a
kouan for instruction.
CỬ THỂ (chỉ sự chuyên nhất, hợp nhất về cử
chỉ, thái độ):(1) All, completely. (2)
To move one's whole body in a simultaneously
coordinated way; to put one's whole body and
mind into even the smallest movement. (3)
Just like that; as it is.
CHƯƠNG (làm rơ, rơ, đẹp):(1) To express,
clarify, manifest, display; to make known to.
(2) Clear, bright. (3) Ornamental,
CẢM (cảm tưởng, cảm động, cảm xúc):(1)
Feeling, sensation, influence, sentiment,
impression. (2) To receive an effect (bhaagya).
(3) To feel, experience, be conscious of,
CẢM ỨNG (mong ước, cầu nguyện và đáp ứng):(1)
Moved to response through feelings. To feel and
respond. The communion of the minds of the
Buddha and practitioners. The mind of faith
and/or good roots of sentient beings penetrate
the buddhas and bodhisattvas and cause them to
respond. Thus, it is the reception of our mind
of faith by the Buddha, and his response to it.
In Pure Land Buddhism, it refers to the
awareness of Amitaabha Buddha of the recitation
of his name by sentient beings, and his response
of saving them.
CỨU (cùng cực, kiếm):(1) To go to the end
of; attain, reach, master. (2)
Investigate thoroughly. (3) To end,
terminate. (4) The end, the limit, the
CỨU CÁNH (rốt ráo): (1)
Unsurpassed, final, extreme, best, ideal (atyanta).
(2) Utmost, limit, extremity (nisthaa).
(3) To completely exhaust. Arrive. Reach,
attain. To master (a topic). Especially, to
arrive to the highest position of
bodhisattvahood, or thorough enlightenment (nisthaa-gamana).
(4) Thoroughly realize or comprehend.
(5) To truly make manifest (samaapana).
(6) Final goal. Becoming a Buddha
(especially in T'ien-t'ai or Hua-yen).
CỨU CÁNH VỊ (địa vị cứu cánh) # QUẢ PHẬT:
The 'final stage' among the five stages of
practice enumerated by Vasubandhu in his Thirty
Verses on Consciousness-only. The fruit of
Buddhahood. Reversing the basis of one's
existence, experiencing great enlightenment and
great nirvaana. Will engage in the practice of
saving all sentient beings in a future lifetime.
hạt, chinh phục): (1) Go, go out. (2)
Hit, strike, punish, quell. (3) Gain,
grasp. To take taxes, etc.
CHÂU (ngọc quí): (1) A pearl.
(2) A round jewel. (3) Something
CÙNG (hết):(1) Exhausted, impoverished,
poor, suffer. (2) To investigate
thoroughly, to sift out. To thoroughly master
something. (3) To terminate, Limit,
CHƯƠNG (một phần trong sách):(1)
Sentence, article, composition, chapter. (2)
Thesis, proposition (vaakya).
CÁNH (hết, cuối): (1) Finish, end.
(2) Finally, at last. (3)
Actually, really, only. (4) A boundary, a
CẤP-CÔ-ĐỘC (tên người): Anaathapindika
(or Anaathapindada), whose name is also
transliterated as A-na-đà-tẩn-trà-đà. A wealthy
and generous man who lived in Raajagraha at the
time when `Saakyamuni was teaching. He was known
for giving food and clothing to those in
hardship ("orphans and the lonely elderly") and
was revered by his contemporaries. He was a key
figure in the acquisition of the land that was
used for the building of the first temple. His
real name was Sudatta - Tu-Đạt.
CHỨC (chức vụ):(1) To be employed,
employment. (2) Work, job, office. (3)
CAN (gan): The liver--thus, something
CAN TÂM (tim gan, điều cốt yếu):
Essential, important, fundamental.
CHÍ (đến):(1) To reach, to arrive at, to
extend to. (2) Very, extreme. (3)
The greatest, the best, the ultimate. Highest
class or rank. (4) Reach, attain, result
in, lead to.
CHÍ NHẤT THIẾT XỨ (bậc thứ 4 của Thập Hồi
hướng) (đến khắp mọi nơi): 'Arriving in all
places' The fourth stage of the 'ten dedications
of merit' in the path of bodhisattvahood. The
stage where the bodhisattva enters all
Buddha-lands, and cultivates practice together
with all Buddhas.
CHÍ TÂM (hết ḷng): (1) To pay
close attention; to concentrate. (2) A
sincere mind; sincerity; one's true intention.
CẢI (sửa đổi): (1) Change, modify,
convert, renew, renovate, reform, mend, rectify,
amend, revise, improve, examine. (2) Be
renewed, be renovated, be rectified, etc. (3)
CÔNG (tấn công): (1) Attack,
assault. (2) To apply oneself to; to work
at. (3) To study, to research.
CỐ (lư do, cho nên, xưa cũ):(1) Reason,
cause, circumstances. (2) Therefore,
consequently. (3) Especially,
intentionally. (4) Old, ancient,
CỨU (cứu):(1) To save, to succor, to aid.
To help, fix, repair. To put an end to; to stop.
CỨU HỘ CHÚNG SINH, LY CHÚNG SINH TƯỚNG (một
địa vị tu tập của Bồ tát, 1 trong 10 địa vị hồi
hướng): The first stage among the 'ten
dedications of merit' of the path of the
bodhisattva. The stage where one, while using
the mind of no aspects to save sentient beings,
is still separated from the aspects of
CẢM (dám): To dare, to presume, to
CHỈNH NGHI (sửa soạn lại y phục trước khi làm
CHỈNH DUNG (sửa soạn lại dung mạo): To
tidy the appearance; shaving, fixing the hair,
CHIÊU (sáng sủa): Clear, clearly.
CĂN (gốc, chỉ giác quan): (indriya)
'Workings', 'mechanism', 'faculty', 'ability.'
(1) The Căn of plants and trees implies
their ability to grow and develop and in still
life into their trunks and branches; it is in
this sense regarded as “root." (2) The
term also has the meaning of 'organ'--that which
gives rise to perception. Therefore it is used
as a name for the five sense organs -Ngũ căn.
These five organs are invisible and are created
by transformation of the four elements -Tứ đại,
and have the ability to see, hear, and so forth.
Though they are invisible and pure, they do
theoretically occupy space, and are therefore
able to be classified as 'form' elements in the
classification system of the Fa-hsiang school.
(3) Ability, capacity, nature, faculty,
of which there are generally sharp, average and
dull. The particular capabilities that a certain
individual has for understanding a certain level
of teaching and attaining enlightenment. See Cơ
(chi). (4) That which stimulates
awakening in human beings, namely, the 'five
roots' of faith, effort, mindfulness,
concentration and wisdom.
CĂN TRẦN (nội tâm và ngoại cảnh): The
(six) cognitive faculties and their objects. The
six objects are considered to be the external
cause of affliction, and are therefore referred
to negatively as 'dust,' or 'dirt.'
CÁCH (đến, hiểu, thấu đáo):(1) To
ascertain, to investigate completely and
thoroughly. (2) To arrive, to come to, to
get to; (3) To hit the mark; to grasp the
principle of. (4) To correct. (5)
A rule, a limit, a pattern, a principle. (6)
Wise, intelligent, sagely. (7) To resist,
CÁCH NGÔN (lời nói có giá trị từ xưa):
CHIÊN ĐÀN (một loại cây): A
transliteration of the Sanskrit/Pali candana. It
is a tree whose bark is used as a medicinal
herb, as well as for incense. (naka p="838")
CỰC (tột cùng): (1) Very,
exceedingly, highest, most, quite. (2)
Highest rank or grade. (3) Ultimate
realm, highest matter. (4) To reach the
end of; to push to extremities. To exhaust, to
finish, to complete.
CỰC QUẢ (quả vị cùng tột): 'Ultimate
result.' Perfect realization. The true awakening
of the Buddha, as the result of causal
CỰC LẠC (thế giới của Đức A Di Đà):
“Ultimate bliss;" a description of the Pure Land
of Amitaabha Buddha.
CƠ:(1) The key, main point, pivotal point
to something. Most basic thing. Pivotal affair.
(2) Mechanism, works, device. Means,
instrument, motive (power), agent (yantra).
(3) Working(s), function, action, motive. An
opportunity, occasion or condition of the mind.
Shifting mental attitude, especially in Zen
language. (4) A sign or indication of a
manifest object before it appears. The ability
for something to be produced upon contact with
something else. Sign, indication, omen, symptom.
(5) A spring, an impulse, chance,
opportunity, occasion. (6) The
mental/spiritual ability, which as a result of
devout Buddhist practice, suddenly manifests
upon a shift or a change in the Buddhist
teachings. Talent, ability. The capacity or
temperament of the practitioner. The religious
predisposition of sentient beings. (7)
The person being taught. (vineya). (8)
Human beings, sentient beings (aa`saya). (9)
Quick, nimble, agile. (1) Changes,
motions; the moving power of.
CƠ TIÊN (trước khi hoạt động): The state
of things before they demonstrate themselves in
CƠ NGHỊ (sự tính toán):(1) The function
of the mind to be in accord with goodness.
(2) Sentient beings. (3) According to
the capacities of sentient beings.
CƠ CẢM (sự cảm ứng tùy theo căn cơ):
refers to.???, the various individual capacities
of sentient beings, and (chien) refers to.???ä,
the awareness of the Buddha to the needs of
sentient beings and his response to them. The
relationship of the Buddha's grace according to
the merits of each individual person.
CƠ GIÁO (căn cơ và giáo pháp): The
ripeness of the faculties of sentient beings
matched with the teachings of the Buddha.
CƠ DUYÊN (điều kiện may mắn):(1) Motive,
opportunity. (2) The opportunity related
to the mental condition of the person one is
interacting with. (3) Sentient beings.
(4) In Hua-yen, the good and evil qualities
in the constitution of people. (5) A term
referring to condition of being guided directly
by a Buddha or a great master (especially in
Ch'an). (6) In Ch'an Buddhism, making use
of opportunities and according with conditions.
(7).???; words that are recorded during a
“dharma-battle" between two Ch'an masters, and
passed on to others for later study.
CƠ YẾU (điểm then chốt): An important or
pivotal point. The most profound meaning. A
critical moment or situation.
CƠ LOẠI (chúng sinh):(1) The variation in
the faculties and abilities of sentient beings.
(2) Sentient beings.
CA-LỢI (phiên âm của Kali):(1) A
transliteration of the Sanskrit kali. Kali-yuga,
which in early Indian cosmology is the present
evil age. (2) The goddess Kali.
CA-LỢI VƯƠNG (tên một vị vua cổ xưa): A
transliteration of the Sanskrit kalinga-raja
("evil king"), also written in Chinese as.???.
King Kalinga was an evil king of the distant
past gradually dismembered `Saakyamuni (in an
earlier incarnation) in order to test his power
of endurance. Kalinga is mentioned in the
Diamond Suutra, but the full story is contained
in earlier Pali materials.
CHỈ (dừng, một pháp tu):(1) To stop, to
finish, to end. (2) To cause to stop; to
bring to a halt. To cease, cessation. A limit.
To rest in. (3) Only. (4) To stop
harmful activities. (5) Stabilizing
meditation, or concentration meditation as
contrasted to analytical meditation -Quán.
CHỈ TRỤ = AN TRỤ: Calm abiding; `samatha,
CHỈ TÁC NHỊ TR̀ (dưng và làm; dừng điều ác,
làm điều thiện): “Two observances of doing
and not-doing." Two ways of maintaining or
cultivating goodness. One is by negating of
stopping evil, the other is by creating or doing
CHỈ TỨC (chấm dứt): (1) To bring
about the cessation of suffering. (2) A
Chinese translation of the Sanskrit `samatha -Xa-ma-tha
(she-ma-t'a). (3) A Chinese translation
of `sramana -Sa-môn.
CHỈ TR̀ = CHỈ TÁC: Doing good by the
practice of ceasing to do evil. Keeping the
precepts that are concerned with restraint.
CHỈ PHẠM (lỗi lầm do không làm những điều cần
làm): To be wrong, or create bad karma by
“not-doing" at the time when there is something
positive to be done.
CHỈ BỆNH (bệnh dừng cho rằng dừng hẳn mọi
vọng niệm th́ thể nghiệm chơn tâm): The
“sickness" (imbalance) of overly emphasizing
stabilizing meditation, and believing that it in
itself can lead to enlightenment. This problem
is discussed in Chapter 11 of the Yu"an chu"eh
ching (T. 842.17).
CHÁNH: (sa.myak). (1) Exact,
right, correct, upright, true, straight. (sat).
(2) To rectify, to correct, to adjust, to
regulate. (3) A level, even shape (`saata).
(4) 'accordance' (nyaana). (5)
True nature, nirvaana. (6) The basis of
correct knowledge (pramaana). (7) Truly,
correctly. (8) Principal, chief, as
opposed to secondary.
CHÁNH TRUYỀN: The correct transmission of
the Buddha-dharma from teacher to student.
CHÁNH THỤ = CHÁNH ĐỊNH:(1) Samaadhi,
mental unity. To gain a state of concentration (samaapatti).
(2) A vow or oath (vrata).
CHÁNH TÂM TRỤ (1 trong 10 Trụ; Trụ thứ 6):
The “Abiding of Correct Mind." The sixth of the
Ten Abidings -Thập Trụ.
CHÁNH NIỆM:(1) 'Correct mindfulness',
'correct thought'. One of the Eightfold Path.
Nien refers to continual mindfulness without
lapse. To continually keep (something) in mind.
To be removed from evil thought and be mindful
of the Buddha-way (sa.mprajaana, pratismrta,
smrti, sa.myak-smrti). (2) To abide in
veracious thought. To rectify the mind and hold
to its true form. To be mindful of reality and
not to be taken in by appearances. (3) To
skillfully remember affairs without lapse in
memory. In Pure Land teachings, the Mind of True
Reliance on Amitaabha Buddha.
CHÁNH PHÁP:(1) True principle, true
reality, true dharma. (2) The teaching of
reality; the true teaching; the buddha's
teaching. (3) The period of the true
teaching, as opposed to the latter two periods
of the semblance teaching and the degenerate
CHÁNH NGHĨA:(1) The traditional or
accepted viewpoint of one school or sect. (2)
The correct meaning or interpretation.
CHÁNH KIẾN: 'Right view,' 'correct view.'
the view which complies with the Buddhist
teaching of causality. One of the items of
practice in the Eightfold Holy Path.
CHÁNH GIÁC:(1) Awakening, enlightenment.
The awakening of the Buddha. 'Correct
awakening.' Awakening to true reality. (Pali
sa.mbodhi; Skt. abhisa.mbodhi). (2) A
person who has awakened to reality. A Buddha,
CHIẾU (soi):(1) To illumine, reflect,
shine on. (2) Illumination,
efflorescence. (3) To look after. (4)
To understand completely. (5) According
to; as; seeing that. (6) Photograph,
figure, shape, form. (7) Proof,
CHIẾU LIỄU (biểu lộ, chiếu sáng): To
manifest. To enlighten.
CHIẾU DIỆU (soi sáng): Shine on, shed
light on, illuminate. Shine brightly.
CHIẾU LÂM (soi đến): (1) To
illuminate the surrounding area from a high
place. (2) A powerful man in a high
position influences the people.
CHIẾU KIẾN (soi thấy): Shed light on,
illuminate. To observe clearly; to determine by
seeing; to come to understand.
CAM (ngọt): Sweet; sweetness. One of the
“five flavors." (1) Sweet, pleasant.
(2) Voluntarily, willingly.
CAM-LỔ (LỘ): (1) The nectar (amrta,
soma) of the gods, which wards of old age and
death. (2) A metaphor for the teaching of
the Buddha. (3) Originally, the Sanskrit
a-mrta means 'no-death.'
CHÂN (thực, đúng) ¹ GIẢ:(1) True, actual,
real; pure, undiluted, undefiled; correct.
(2) Really, truly, completely. (3)
Way, path. (4) As it is; naturally.
CHÂN NHƯ (chân lư, bản thể của sự sống):
(tathataa); 'true thusness.' Things as they are.
For something to be as it is. The establishment
of reality as empty. 'Reality-nature', the
nature of existence. (4) Universally
pervading principle. The existence of the mind
as true reality. 'As-it-is-ness.' The source of
CHÂN NHƯ VÔ VI (# CHÂN NHƯ) (1 trong 6 loại
vô vi theo Duy Thức học): 'Suchness.' One of
the six unconditioned existences (dharmas) in
Consciousness-only theory. True reality is the
real nature of all existences, yet Chân Như is
called an 'unconditioned existence' due to the
notion that even the awakened wisdom of the
Buddha is in itself not really 'true reality',
since the wisdom of enlightenment is classified
as a conditioned existence.
CHÂN NHƯ TƯỚNG: The eighth of the 'ten
dedications of merit' of the path of the
bodhisattva. The stage where the bodhisattva,
using the wisdom of the middle path, clarifies
existence and non-existence, and sees that
everything is the reality-realm.
CHÂN VỌNG (thật giả): Truth and falsity.
That which arises conditioned by ignorance is
falsity, that which arises conditioned by
religious practice is truth.
CHÂN VỌNG GIAO TRIỆT (thật giả xen lẫn nhau):
Interpenetration of the true and the false.
(Awakening of Faith).
CHÂN THỰC: (uttama-artha, tathaatva,
tattva). (1) The form of something, the
way it is. (2) True and not false. (3)
Substantial, full, complete. (4)
Substance, essence. (5) The most lofty
truth. (6) The true or real teachings.
CHÂN THỰC HẠNH (Hạnh thứ 10 của Thập Hạnh):
'Practicing reality' 'attaining to the true
principle.' The tenth of the 'ten practices'
stages in the path of bodhisattvahood.
CHÂN ẢNH:(1) True shape, true form.
(2) The painted or carved image of a famous
CHÂN TƯỚNG (sự thực): The truth, the
facts, the real situation.
CHÂN GIÁC ĐẠI SƯ (tên người): Chen-hsiao
Ta-shih. See Tuyết Phong Nghĩa Tồn -Hsu"eh-feng
CHÂN QUYẾT (bí quyết chân thực): The most
profound meaning of true reality.
CHIÊM: To look, to see. Observe. Look
around, survey (vyavalokita). Naka 842a
CÙ-ĐÀM (phiên âm của Gautama).
CẤM (không cho phép): (1) Prohibition,
ban. (2) To prohibit, forbid, repress,
restrain, abstain from.
CẤM GIỚI: Precept, commandment,
instructions, regulations. Abstaining from
wrongdoing, avoiding evil. The rules given by
the Buddha. The regulations that practitioners
should adhere to. Also pronounced in Japanese as
CẤM TÚC (không cho phép đi đâu): “No
walking." During the three month meditation
retreat, the practitioner does not take a single
step out of the monastery.
CHỦNG (loại, trồng): (1) Seed, grain;
cause, origin. Used metaphorically in Buddhism;
see íq ( chung-tzu) (biija). In the school of
Consciousness-only, latent karmic power. (2)
To plant, to sow. (3) A species, class,
type, a sort, a predisposition. (4) To
CHỦNG TỬ (hạt giống): 'Seeds' of all
mental and physical actions which are stored in
the aalayavij~naana. The two hindrances, by the
power of their manifestation, permeate the
aalaya-vij~naana and become stored there.
CHỦNG TÍNH (ḍng giống): 'Seed nature.'
Also.??? (gotra). The predisposition of people;
the temperament or nature of religious
practitioners; the predisposition for buddhahood.
CHỦNG TRÍ (trí huệ của Phật): The perfect
buddha-wisdom that fully knows every single
thing in existence - Nhất Thiết Chủng Trí.
CHỦNG CHỦNG: (citra, citrataa, naanaa,
vicitra). Various, diverse, varied. All sorts
(shades, kinds, manner) of; every sort,
manifold, multifarious, sundry.
CHUNG NAM ĐẠI SƯ # ĐẠI SƯ THIỆN ĐẠO:
Chung-nan Ta-shih. Another name for Shan-tao -Thiện
Đạo ( Shan-tao). Chung-nan is the name of the
mountain monastery where he lived and taught.
CHUNG NHI PHỤC THỦY (hết rồi bắt đầu lại):
Finish and start over again. In the
Mahaayaana suutras usually a bodhisattva gives
his question to the Buddha three times, each
time repeating the question.
CƯƠNG (giềng mối):(1) Rope, cord, string,
line, cable. (2) A bond, a tie. (3)
CƯƠNG YẾU (những điểm quan trọng): An
outline of a doctrine, text, etc. The essentials
of a school, teaching, etc.
CHÆ (mục tiêu): (1) Sweet, tasty.
(2) Object, aim, gist. (3)
Teaching, instruction. Purport, theme. (4)
CẢNH NHÀN (tên người): Gyeonghan-(1299-1375)
A prominent Goryeo Seon monk; also known by the
dharma-name of Paegun. He was initiated into
Buddhism by.??? and was contemporary and
colleague of the renowned T'aego Pou.
CANH (đổi thay) ; c̣n đọc là CÁNH (lại): (1)
On the contrary, instead, rather. Anew, afresh,
again. Still more, further. (2) In
Buddhism Canh is sometimes equivalent to the
term 'contact' which is one of the twelve limbs
of conditioned arising (spar`sa). (3) To
receive the sensation of suffering.
CHƯỚC (sáng tỏ, đốt, nướng): Brightly,
CHƯỚC NHIÊN (sáng rỡ): (1) To burn, fire,
scorch. (2) Clear, bright. (3)
CẦU (xin): (1) To seek, to search for, to
look for, wish for, pray for, ask for. (2)
To pursue fully and deeply; to completely
finish, accomplish. (3) Equal, even.
(4) A synonym for Thụ(shu) (vedanaa)
“feeling," the seventh of the twelve conditions.
CHÚ (rót vào, chuyên chú, chú ư, chú thích):
(1) Pour into, pour on, flow into, fill, add
to. The mind flowing in a certain direction.
(2) To exegete; to write a commentary on a
CỬ (nâng lên, nêu ra): (1) To raise, to
elevate with the hands. (2) To begin, to
initiate, to move, to recommend, bring forward.
(3) All, the whole.
CHUẨN (mực, mức): (1) A water level.
Level; to read a level. (2) A standard,
criterion, norm. (3) To imitate, make
alike. (4) To determine, calculate.
(5) Equal, same.
CÁI (che, cái dù): (1) To cover, hide,
conceal. (2) a cover(ing). (3)
Umbrella. (4) Maybe, probably, possibly.
(5) Now, why, why not, what do you think
about.. (6) To build, erect. (7)
To affix a stamp or seal. (8) “Now.."
“However..”. Often used interchangeably with.???
CÁT ĐẰNG (dây mơ rễ má): Arrowroot vines
and wisteria vines. A metaphor for entanglement
CA-ĐA-DIỄN-NI- TỬ (tên người):
Kaatyaayaniiputra of Kashmir. Author of a number
of seminal Consciousness-only texts, including
the Fa-chih lun Phát Trí Luận.
CA-CHIÊN-DIÊN (tên người): Kaatyaayana,
Mahaakaatyaayana. One of the ten principal
disciples of `Saakyamuni. He is recorded as
having been an excellent dialectician and
explicator of difficult Buddhist teaching.
CA-CHIÊN-DIÊN A-TỲ- ĐÀM (tên sách):
Kaatyaayana abhidharma. An alternative title for
CA-TỲ-LA-VỆ (địa danh): Kapilavastu. The
hometown of `Saakyamuni Buddha, which was the
headquarters of the `Saakya clan which he was
born from. Located in present-day Nepal.
CA-DIẾP (tên người) (tên một vị cổ Phật):
Skt. Kaa`syapa. (1) A Vedic sage to whom
numerous hymns, particularly creation hymns, are
ascribed. (2) The Buddha of the world-age
preceding the present one. (3)
Mahaakaa`syapa, a brahman of Magadha, who became
one of the principal disciples of `Saakyamuni
and who convoked and directed the first council,
whence his name, “chairman" is derived. (4)
The sixth of the seven buddhas of the past.
CA-DIẾP TAM HUYNH ĐỆ (ba anh em ông Ca-Diếp):
See Tam Ca Diếp.
CÁCH:(1) Be separated, separate from. To
make space. (2) Distance, interval, gap,
gulf. (3) To close, shut, cover, stop up,
obstruct. Divide, partition. (4) To
differ. To separate, interpose, screen. Become
CHƯỚNG (trở ngại):(1) Obstacle,
hindrance, impediment. That which obstructs
enlightenment. (2) Resistance,
opposition. (3) To hinder, obstruct,
interfere. See Nhị Chướng.
CHÚNG (nhiều, nhiều người, một nhóm người):(1)
Many, a great number, a myriad. A crowd, many
people. All. (1) Audience, congregation,
assembly (parsad). (2) Company, circle,
group (naikaayika). (3) sa.mgha. Defined
variously as the harmony existing between three
or more, four or more, five or more people.
Practicing monks; disciples. (4) People
in the world, all people. All (jagat).
CHÚNG ĐỔNG PHẬN (mẫu số chung, yếu tố chung):
(sattva-saamya, dharma, nikaaya-sabaagha)
'Commonality of sentient beings.' One of the 24
elements not concomitant with mind in
Consciousness-only theory.??? means 'to
resemble.' The fact that all human beings
possess common characteristics is called 'human
commonality.' The power of human beings to be
human beings, and accordingly, to be
distinguished from dogs, cats, etc. In the same
way the commonality of dogs, cats, etc. is
established. This is also true of vegetable and
mineral life. The fact that a human being, in
the middle of his life, cannot suddenly change
into a dog or cat, is due to this power.
CHÚNG ĐỔ # ĐỔ CHÚNG (một tập thể người tu):
A general name for a Buddhist priest.
CHÚNG SINH: “Sentient being." (1)
All beings. In Buddhist scriptures, sentient
beings are mentioned in contrast to buddhas, as
those who are still bound in the suffering of
sa.msaara, who are not yet enlightened; in this
meaning, synonymous with.???, which means
“regular person," or “worldling." On the other
hand, it is the awareness that is present in
sentient beings--exactly their “sentiency" which
is the quality of buddhahood itself. Therefore
there is the Mahaayaana doctrine of “all
sentient beings are originally buddhas." (2)
After the time of Hsu"an-tsang, this term was
translated into Chinese as Hữu t́nh -"having
sentiency." In the Nirvaana-suutra, it is
clearly stated that 'sentient beings' means all
things, even those things that we would normally
consider inanimate, such as minerals, and that
all of these things possess the Buddha-nature.
CHÚNG HIỀN (tên người): Sa.mghabhadra.
Lived in Northern India during the fifth century
CHẨN (đoán): (1) To look, to see,
to reflect upon. (2) Diagnose, analyze,
investigate, divine. (3) To inform, let
GIỚI (răn, khuyên, cấm):(1) Admonish,
warn, prohibit, advise against. Advise. (2)
A precept, a command, a commandment.
CHIẾU (lệnh vua ban xuống):(1) Decree,
imperial edict. (2) To decree. (3)
To say, to inform. (4) To teach, to
CAI (bao quát):(1) Combine, embrace,
include. (2) The said.., the respective.
That, the; belong to. (3) To have. (4)
Ought, should, fated to be.
CAI LA (bao gồm): To collect all together
without leaving or missing anything.
CẬT (hỏi kỹ): (1) Reprove, rebuke,
censor, accuse, blame, scold, upbraid. (2)
Stop, prohibit. (3) Control, regulate,
govern, adjust, rectify.
CÁO (cho biết):(1) To enjoin, to order,
to inform a superior. (2) To grant, as a
title of honor. (3) To tell, inform,
advise, warn, teach.
CUỐNG (lừa dối): To deceive, to trick. (maayaa,
`saathya): 'deception'. One of the lesser
defilement elements as listed in the
Abhidharmako`sa-bhaasya, one of the twenty
secondary defilements in the doctrine of the
Fa-hsiang school. The mental action of deceiving
others by lying to them; acting virtuous when
lacking virtue, adorning base qualities so that
they will appear as excellent qualities. A
sub-function of ignorance and covetousness.
CHƯ (các):(1) Many, all, various, the
various; myriad. A plural indicator. (2)
This; with this, using this, concerning this.
(3) Locative: in, at, on, etc. (4) A
CHƯ PHÁP (các pháp): (sarva-vastuuni,
sarva-dharma); 'all dharmas'. All the elements
that make up an individual. All things.
CHƯ PHÁP ĐẢN DANH TÔN (tông phái cho rằng
muôn pháp chỉ là tên mà thôi): The teaching
that all dharmas are only names.
CHƯ HÀNH VÔ THƯỜNG (mọi vật đều vô thường):
All things are in a state of incessant change.
All conditioned things are in continual motion.
CHỨNG: 'Realization,' 'actualization.'
(1) Awakening. To clarify. To know clearly
within oneself, without a doubt. To manifest the
unsurpassed principle within oneself. To
witness, or prove (saak.saat-karana). (2)
To realize the result; to attain the fruit; to
reach to; to experience (adhigama). (3) A
witness. (4) To realize, to certify.
CHỨNG ĐẮC: 1) To gain, to get, acquire.
To realize, to perfect, consummate; to come to (adhigama).
(2) To experience, realize or comprehend
directly (praapti-saak.saat-krti). (3)
Awaken, undergo enlightenment.
CHỨNG TỰ CHỨNG PHẦN (chủ thể tự nội quan):
'Rewitnessing aspect'. One of the four aspects
of perception in Consciousness-only theory
according to Dharmapaala. The function of
consciousness of cognizing the fact that it has
perceived an object. Also, checking prior
awareness for its validity.
CHỨNG NGHIỆM: (1) To bear witness;
to verify. (2) Verification, proof,
CHẤT:(1) Disposition, nature, quality,
personality. (2) Matter, substance,
elements, essence. (3) Real, true,
honest. (4) To promise. (5) To
question, to verify. To call as a witness.
(6) To confront, to present oneself. (7)
A pledge, a pawn.
CHẤT NGẠI (trở ngại): 'Material
obstruction.' The inability to occupy the same
place at the same time (a special quality of
'form' (ruupa). One thing obstructing another
thing. Material hindrance.
CHUYỂN (quay, đổi): (1) To come
up, to arise. To function, unfold, develop.
(2) To exist, to appear (vartate, pravartate).
(3) To transform, to change, to become.
(4) To revolve, to turn (pravrtti,
CHUYỂN Y (sự biến đổi):(1) The
conversion, revolution or transformation of the
basis of our deluded existence. The conversion
of defilement into nirvaana (aa`sraya-parav.rtti).
(2) In Consciousness-only, the
transformation of the aalaya-vij~naana.
CHUYỂN THẮNG (chuyển thành tốt hơn): To
transform or change into something better.
CHUYỂN THỨC (đổi Thức): “Changing
consciousness" “transforming consciousness"
“karmic consciousness." (1) Manifestly
functioning consciousness. The other seven
consciousnesses as distinguished from the
aalaya-vij~naana. Unenlightened, deluded
consciousness that is manifested concomitant
with the objective realm. (2) The
transformation of the defiled consciousness into
CHUYỂN THỨC THÀNH TRÍ (đổi thức thành trí):
'transforming consciousness and gaining wisdom.'
Transforming the defiled eighth, seventh, sixth
and prior five consciousnesses and gaining
respectively, “Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom,"
“Wisdom Knowing the Equality of All Things,"
“Marvelous Observing Wisdom," and The “Wisdom of
Completion of Actions.”
CHUYỂN CHUYỂN (đổi măi): To pass from
hand to hand. Go rolling along. Roll around;
CỐT (xương): (1) Bone(s); (2)
Marrow, the heart, the essence, the gist. (3)
The shell of a turtle. (4) Hard. True,
CAO:(1) High, tall, exalted, aged,
high-priced, a high note, of high quality.
Great, large, excellent. (2) To heighten,
to enlarge, to raise up. (3) Height; a
high place. Above.
CAO SÚC THỤ: See Đa La Thu.
CHÂM-CỨU: Acupuncture and moxibustion.
The practice of this art by Buddhist monks was
prohibited. (2) Medical treatment.
CỐ (nh́n lại, nhớ lại):(1) To care for,
to regard, to look after. (2) On the
contrary, conversely, then, therefore. (3)
To think, reflect, mull over, review, to look
back on. (4) To wait. (5) Only.
(5) As well as; also.
CHƯỚNG TRỌNG: To be bound or restricted
by afflictions. Affliction, defilement (kaaya-cittayor
CỐNG (dâng, cho, người thi đỗ):(1)
Tribute; to bear tribute. (2) Support,
finance. (3) To levy a tax. (4)
The best quality, superior. (5) The
surname of a disciple of Confucius.
CUNG (cơ thể): The body; oneself.
CHÂU (1 ṿng, 1 tuần 7 ngày):(1) To turn,
revolve, spin. (2) A week, seven days.
(3) Round, circular. A circle.
CHẤN (lắc mạnh, quẻ Chấn):(1) To shake,
excite, terrify. (2) To quicken, to
arouse. (3) The 51st of the I-Ching