Cùng Chung Lăn Chuyn Bánh Xe Pháp

                  

 
 

T ĐIỂN PHẬT HỌC VIỆT - ANH
Soạn Giả: Viên Thông - Charles Muller
-o0o-


CÔ ĐỘC VIÊN (vườn Cấp Cô Độc): See Kỳ Thụ Cấp Cô Độc Viên

CHỈNH (sắp lại):(1) Arrange, adjust, coordinate, regulate. To put right, to set in order, make neat, straighten out. (2) The whole; completely.

CHỦ:(1) Chủ nhân: Lord, master, owner, host. A ruler; to act as lord. (2) Chủ yếu: To value, to place importance on.

CHỦ BẠN:(1) Chính và phụ: Chief and attendant; principal and secondary, host and guest. (2) Phật và đệ tử: The Buddha and his bodhisattvas.

CHỦ TỂ:(1) Supervisor, chairman, director, controller. Supervision, management. (2) A term for tathaagata. (3) A reference to the imaginary position of an arbitrarily conceived self.

CỬU TẬP (tu tập lâu dài, tu đă lâu): A veteran practitioner. One who has done religious practice for a long time and accumulated merit.

CỬU CAO: (1) The “nine marshes" --hell, the underworld. (2) A deep swamp; a deep marshland. A metaphor for a deep, distant place.

CỬU THỨ ĐỆ ĐỊNH (9 cấp thiền định): The nine graduated concentrations'. Concentration in which the practitioner progresses successively through the 'four meditations' -Tứ Thiền, the 'four formless concentrations' -Tứ Vô Sắc Định, and the 'concentration of extinction' -Diệt Tận Định.

CỬU PHẨM LIÊN ĐÀI (9 phẩm văng sinh): Nine levels of practitioners reborn in the Pure Land, occupying nine levels of Lotus Seats. According to the Quán Vô Lượng Thọ Kinh these are categorized as: the best of the best, middling of the best, least of the best; best of the middling, middling of the middling and least of the middling; best of the least, middling of the least and least of the least. (naka p="257")

CỬU CƯ: An abbreviation for Cửu hữu t́nh cư

CỬU HỮU T̀NH CƯ (9 thế giới, chỗ cư trú của chúng sinh): Nine abodes of sentient beings as listed in the Abhidharmako`sa-bhaasya. In Dục Giới -the desire realm, human existence. In Sắc Giới -the form realm, Chúng, Cực Quang Tịnh, Biến Tịnh and the four no-thought heavens. In Vô Sắc Giới - the formless realm, the locus of unlimited space, the locus of unlimited consciousness, the locus of objectlessness and the locus of neither-thought-nor-no-thought. (naka p="252d")

CỬU THỨC (thức thứ 9): The Ninth Consciousness, which was added to the eight consciousnesses posited by the school of Consciousness-only. Schools such as Hua-yen and T'ien-t'ai posited this as Bạch Tịnh Thức -an undefiled immaculate (amala) consciousness.

CỬU LIÊN: An abbreviation of Cửu phẩm Liên Đài “nine lotus stands" representing nine possible levels of rebirth for Pure Land practitioners.(naka p="257")

CÀN (KIỀN) [tên của 1 trong 8 quẻ của Kinh Dịch ]: (1) Dry, dried up, dry up. (2) Clear, exhausted. (3) In name only. (4) Sky, heaven. (5) Prince, ruler, emperor. (6) The NW direction. (7) The first hexagram (pure yang). (8) Strong, powerful.

CUNG (CÚNG):(1) Offer, sacrifice, dedicate. (2) Present, submit, serve. (3) Accompany. (4) Offering. (5) Attendant, retinue.

CUNG DƯỠNG (cúng dường ):(1) 'Offering and sustaining;' (puujaa). An offering of food, drink, clothing etc., to a buddha, monk, teacher, ancestor etc. (2) A special commemorative service held to mark such things as the construction of a temple or statue or the completion of the copying of a suutra.

CÂU (cùng với, cùng nhau, cùng lúc):(1) Together with.. (sardham, sahita). (2) Both, two things together (ubhaya). (3) Bound together (samyuta). (4) Produced, or born together. (5) Simultaneous(ly) (samam).

CÂU SINH CHƯỚNG: (trở ngại có từ khi sinh ra, có saün): 'Simultaneously produced hindrances,' a term used by the school of Consciousness-only. Hindrances that arise simultaneously with the mind. In the attachment to self, there is attachment due to discriminating a self through thought. Yet even when purposely suppressing this kind of thought, there is a spontaneously arisen attachment to self. Even though one is trying not to give rise to such thought and trying to suppress the self-view, still an attachment to self arises. This is what is called “arising together with the mind." This arising occurs in the seventh consciousness as well as the sixth consciousness. It is said that the seeds produced by this hindrance are different from those produced by the 'discriminated arising' - Phân biệt chướng hindrance. Since the discriminated arising hindrance is cut off when one awakens to the principle of dependent origination, they are cut off at one time during the 'seeing of the way' - Kiến đạo. However, the hindrance of simultaneous arising is habituated, so even if one understands the principle of the Way, the hindrance will still arise. Since the habituated nature has developed, one must repeatedly practice the contemplation of dependent origination in order to cut off this hindrance.

CỤ (đồ vật, đầy đủ):(1) To have, to own, be prepared with, endowed with, equipped with. (2) To prepare, get ready, equip. (3) A tool, a utensil. (4) Function, activity. (5) Together with.

CỤ GIỚI ĐỊA (địa thứ 2 trong Thập địa): The stage of the full possession of discipline. The second of the ten bhuumis - Thập địa. Also called -Ly cấu địa

CỤ TÚC (đầy đủ, hoàn toàn):(1) Be endowed with, be provided with; be prepared, possess, have Bị: ["ơ]. (upeta, sampad). (2) To be fully furnished, be complete, lacking nothing. (3) Perfection, completion (paripuurna). (4) In detail, with great care; completely. (5) The endowment of the practitioner with the precepts of the order. (6) Implement, tool, utensil. (7) The complete set of precepts given to the monk or nun who enters the order.

CỤ TRẦN (tŕnh bày đầy đủ, chi tiết): To describe in detail.

CHẾ (chế ngự, làm chủ):(1) Suppress, restrain. (2) Govern, rule. (3) To stop, to end.

CƯƠNG (cứng, quan trọng, vừa mới):(1) Hard, severe, strong, unyielding, enduring. (2) Popular, flourishing. (3) Really, truly, exactly. (4) Right now, soon.

CÔNG:(1) Merits, meritorious deeds; success, credit, honor. (2) Skill, ability, effectiveness, efficacy. (3) Effect.

CÔNG ĐỨC:(1) Excellent virtue, merit; meritorious virtue(s), valuable quality (guna). (2) Blessedness, virtue, fortune, goodness (punya). (3) The causes of good destiny; virtuous roots. (4) Good actions, practices. (5) Great power. (6) The necessary materials for attaining the Buddha's enlightenment.

CÔNG DỤNG:(1) Effort. (2) The function of bodily action, speech and thought (vyaapaara). (3) Function, activity, ability (saamarthya). (4) The efficacy of practice.

CẦN (siêng năng): (1) To endeavor, strive, work. (2) Diligent, industrious, willing to toil. (3) To encourage labor. (4) To aid. (5) To be tired out.

CẦN TU (tu hành siêng năng): (1) To endeavor; to practice with vigor (prayujyate).

CẦN KHỒ:(1) To exert oneself, endeavor, strive. (2) The suffering and pain of the world. Difficult exertion; penance; austerities.

CHỮ VẠN: Ten thousand-Vạn (muôn). All things, especially used in Buddhism.

CHIÊM (bói toán), đọc là CHIẾM (chiếm cứ):(1) To occupy. (2) To divine; divination.

CHIÊM SÁT (bói toán): A method of divination in the Esoteric School, done using the Sanskrit letter “a.”

CHIÊM SÁT KINH (tên kinh): The full name of this text is Ch'an-cha shan-o yeh-pao ching -Chiêm Sát Thiện Aùc Nghiệp Báo kinh T 839.17.901c-910c. This text teaches the method of determining the effects of good and bad karma in the first fascicle, and in the second fascicle gives an explanation of the true meaning of Mahaayaana, comparable to the philosophy of the Awakening of Faith. Because of the content and writing style, it is thought that this text was originally composed in East Asia, rather than India.

MĂO (chi thứ 4 trong 12 địa chi. Giờ Măo từ 5 -7 giờ sáng):(1) The (4th) astrological sign of the Rabbit; east; 5-7 a.m. (2) To grow thick, be overgrown; luxuriant. (3) A hole for a cog or pivot

CÁT TẠNG (tên người): Chi-tsang (549-623), A San-lun -Tam Luận tông master, who parents came from Parthia. He became a novice under Tao-lang at the age of seven, and as he grew up, he became renowned for his extensive learning, especially concerning the Maadhyamika school. He lectured on Maadhyamika scriptures and wrote commentaries on them, thus consolidating the foundations of the San-lun sect. As he lived for some time at Chia-hsiang Temple -Cát Tường tự, he was popularly called the 'Great Master Chia-hsiang.' His San-lun hsu"an-i -Tam Luận Huyền Nghĩa ('Essentials of the Three Discourses'), one fascicle, is a useful compendium of the San-lun doctrine. He also wrote three commentaries on the Lotus Suutra.

CÁO (báo cho biết, nói cho biết):(1) To address, to tell, to talk, say, speak; teach, inform, report, enlighten; to announce to. (2) To make an accusation. (3) It is used in the scriptures where the Buddha is teaching his disciples. It has the connotation of speaking in a big voice to a large audience.

CHÂU (CHU) (một ṿng, tṛn, phổ quát, phổ biến):(1) Around, go around, send around, revolve, circle. (2) Round. (3) Universal, all-embracing, pervasive. To function universally. (3) To reach, to extend to; the ultimate. (4) Unselfish, honest, sincere; not crooked.

CHÂU BIẾN (khắp cả, khắp nơi): Extensive, universal. Extensively, or universally going and operating.

CỬU (lỗi lầm):(1) Fault, blame, mistake, error, offense, sin (dosa). (2) Blame, censure, reprimand, find fault with, rebuke; challenge.

CHÚ:(1) A curse, imprecation, damnation; to curse, to damn. (2) Charm, spell, incantation, mantra, dhaarani.

CÚ (câu, uốn cong): (1) A phrase, a verse, a written line. (2) Bend, curve, turn.

CÚ THÂN (một thuật ngữ trong Duy thức học, chỉ một trong 25 yếu tố không liên hệ với tâm): One of the twenty-four elements not concomitant with mind in Consciousness-only theory. The gathering of two or more phrases.

CẤU (Dơ, không sạch):(1) Dirt, filth (mala). (2) A term for defilement. The quality of defilements being impurity, they permeate the mind and taint it. (3) An abbreviation of fan-nao-kou -Phiền năo cấu, the 'six filths' which are produced from original defilement. They are vexation -Năo, harming -Hại, resentment -Hận, flattery -Siểm, deception -Cuống, and haughtiness.

CHẤP (Bám chặt): 'Attachment'. Deluded attachment to things. (abhinive`sa).

CHẤP TR̀ (Nắm giữ):(1) The function of the mind to perceive anything as its object. (2) A firm, unscattered mind of faith or concentration. (3) To hold something in the hand. (4) The seventh consciousness.

CHẤP TRƯỚC (Bám chấp, vướng mắc): 'attachment'. Holding to things and being unable to let go. Grasping. To think about something and be unable to forget about it

CẢNH:(1) Object, objective (the external realm's) existence. Phenomena, appearance. Thing(s), affairs. That which is apprehended and discerned by the mind and sense-organs. The term generally refers to the objects that give rise to the cognitive activity of the six organs; thus the six objective realms - Lục cảnh. Since these are what defile the human mind, the term - Trần or “dust" is also used interchangeably with Cảnh (visaya, gocara, artha). (2) Object(s) of cognition. The objects of value judgments; synonymous. with Sở thủ. (3) The objects of the five faculties, thus a reference to the five objective realms. When the mind-objects are added, there are six realms, as mentioned above. (4) The discernment of the Buddha's dharma, the object of excellent wisdom. (5) Mental state or condition; sphere, viewpoint. (6) In Consciousness-only theory the three kinds of objects that are discriminated by their qualities. These are: 'real objects' -Tánh cảnh; 'image-only objects' -Độc ảnh cảnh; and 'archetypical objects'-Đới chất cảnh. (7) World, realm. Objective realm. (8) Boundary, limit, frontier, environment, circumstances (aalambana).

CẢNH THƯỢNG ( Hoàn cảnh, môi trường): Within the world.

CẢNH GIỚI (Quan điểm, chỗ hiểu, nhận thức, cảnh vật):(1) Sphere,state, viewpoint (visaya, gocara). (2) Object(s) perceived by the sensory and perceptive organs. The sphere of cognition. (visaya, j~neya). (3) Sphere, realm, place. (4) Feeling, sensation, mood. Mental state. Condition, state, situation. (5) The resultant condition each being ends up in according to their actions: 'fruit,' 'reward,' '-hood.' (6) One's area of specialization; one's own limits.

CẢNH KHÔNG THỨC HỮU(Cảnh th́ không có, thức th́ có. // Cảnh không, thức co.ù): The “objective realm is empty, consciousness exists”.

CẢNH THỨC CÂU DẪN (Cảnh và thức đều dẹp [bỏ]): “Object and consciousness are both denied”.

CUNG (cung điện, một nốt nhạc Tàu xưa):(1) A palace; a temple. A home or dwelling. (2) The first note in the ancient Chinese musical scale.

CƯ (ở):(1) To be. To dwell, to remain, to be in. To be situated in a certain place Tồn (u`sati). (2) To abide, to live at. Ones abode; residence. (3) A place, a scene. To place; to put into place. While being in a certain place.. (4) To sit. (5) To occupy; one's occupation. (6) Bent on; to put into practice.

CƯ SĨ:(1) A householder, a man of wealth. (2) In classical China, an unemployed scholar. A retired scholar; an official out of office. (3) In the Indian caste system, the vai`sya, or merchant/artisan class. (4) A lay religious practitioner.

CỰ HẢI (biển lớn): “Great sea" or “great ocean." (mahaa-ar.nava, udadhi).

CHI (phân ra, cành, ngành): (1) To branch off, to separate. (2) A branch. (3) A limb (arm or leg). (4) To pay; hand over.

CHI PHÂN (một ngành): (anga). A part, a limb, a section.

CHI KHIÊM (tên người): Lokak.sema, translator of the Vimalakiirti-nirde`sa-suutra.

CÂU THI NA: See next Câu Thi Na Yết La-Kushinagara.

CÂU THI NA YẾT LA (địa danh): Ku`sinagara. A capital city in the ancient state of Magadha of central India. In the north part of the city was `Saala forest, where `Saakyamuni passed into nirvaana.

CHỈ (chỉ, ngón tay, ư chỉ):(1) Finger. (2) To point, esp. with the finger. (3) Gist, point, reason. The heart of.

CHỈ SỰ (tên sách): The oldest Japanese commentary on the Wu-chiao chang -Ngũ giáo chương (Wu-chiao chang). Its full title is Hoa Nghiêm Ngũ Giáo Chương Chỉ Sự, 6 fasc., by Thọ Linh. T 2337.72.201-220.

CHỈ NAM (chỉ về hướng Nam, chỉ dẫn): To teach, guide, instruct. Literally “point South" is derived from the indication of a compass.

CHỈ TRÍCH:(1) To point out. (2) Disclose, expose.

CHỈ KHÔNG (tên người): Chih-k'ung(?-1363) An Indian meditation master who traveled to East Asia, and had a strong influence on Korean Seon. He became a monk at an early age and studied Buddhism in various places during his travels. He eventually settled in Yang-chou at Yen-ching, where he became involved with Korean monks such as Hyegeun. Because of these contacts he eventually traveled and taught in Korea.

CHẤN (chấn hưng, chấn động):(1) Wave, wag, swing, shake. (2) Wield, brandish. (3) Jilt, reject, be jilted, be rejected. (4) Be invigorated, be spirited, flourish. To excite into action. (5) To relieve, to save. (6) To receive, to contain. quake, vibrate.

CẦM (bắt, nắm):(1) To capture, seize, grasp, grab. (2) A captive.)

CẦM TÚNG (bắt thả, nắm buông): To capture and release, grasp and let go.

CỨ (nương cậy, chứng cớ, nắm giữ):(1) To receive. (2) To rely on, lean on. Evidence, proof, according to. (3) To occupy, to take possession. To take in the hand. To lay hold of, to grasp.

CỨ TỌA (ng̣i yên, chỉ thái độ khẳng định):(1) To slightly move one's seat. (2) To sit in a chair.

CỬ (nâng lên, đề bạt, nêu ra, cử chỉ):(1) To lift up, to advance, to praise, to recommend, to elevate. To move in an upward direction. (2) To initiate, to move, to bring forward, make effort, strive for. (3) All, the whole. (4) To plan, erect, project. Behavior, actions. (5) To join in an effort; to meet together. (6) To cite. (7) To “offer" or “bring up" or “raise" a kouan for instruction.

CỬ THỂ (chỉ sự chuyên nhất, hợp nhất về cử chỉ, thái độ):(1) All, completely. (2) To move one's whole body in a simultaneously coordinated way; to put one's whole body and mind into even the smallest movement. (3) Just like that; as it is.

CHƯƠNG (làm rơ, rơ, đẹp):(1) To express, clarify, manifest, display; to make known to. (2) Clear, bright. (3) Ornamental, beautiful.

CẢM (cảm tưởng, cảm động, cảm xúc):(1) Feeling, sensation, influence, sentiment, impression. (2) To receive an effect (bhaagya). (3) To feel, experience, be conscious of, respond to.

CẢM ỨNG (mong ước, cầu nguyện và đáp ứng):(1) Moved to response through feelings. To feel and respond. The communion of the minds of the Buddha and practitioners. The mind of faith and/or good roots of sentient beings penetrate the buddhas and bodhisattvas and cause them to respond. Thus, it is the reception of our mind of faith by the Buddha, and his response to it. In Pure Land Buddhism, it refers to the awareness of Amitaabha Buddha of the recitation of his name by sentient beings, and his response of saving them.

CỨU (cùng cực, kiếm):(1) To go to the end of; attain, reach, master. (2) Investigate thoroughly. (3) To end, terminate. (4) The end, the limit, the extreme.

CỨU CÁNH (rốt ráo): (1) Unsurpassed, final, extreme, best, ideal (atyanta). (2) Utmost, limit, extremity (nisthaa). (3) To completely exhaust. Arrive. Reach, attain. To master (a topic). Especially, to arrive to the highest position of bodhisattvahood, or thorough enlightenment (nisthaa-gamana). (4) Thoroughly realize or comprehend. (5) To truly make manifest (samaapana). (6) Final goal. Becoming a Buddha (especially in T'ien-t'ai or Hua-yen).

CỨU CÁNH VỊ (địa vị cứu cánh) # QUẢ PHẬT: The 'final stage' among the five stages of practice enumerated by Vasubandhu in his Thirty Verses on Consciousness-only. The fruit of Buddhahood. Reversing the basis of one's existence, experiencing great enlightenment and great nirvaana. Will engage in the practice of saving all sentient beings in a future lifetime. hạt, chinh phục): (1) Go, go out. (2) Hit, strike, punish, quell. (3) Gain, grasp. To take taxes, etc.

CHÂU (ngọc quí): (1) A pearl. (2) A round jewel. (3) Something beautiful.

CÙNG (hết):(1) Exhausted, impoverished, poor, suffer. (2) To investigate thoroughly, to sift out. To thoroughly master something. (3) To terminate, Limit, finish, end.

CHƯƠNG (một phần trong sách):(1) Sentence, article, composition, chapter. (2) Thesis, proposition (vaakya).

CÁNH (hết, cuối): (1) Finish, end. (2) Finally, at last. (3) Actually, really, only. (4) A boundary, a territory, realm.

CẤP-CÔ-ĐỘC (tên người): Anaathapindika (or Anaathapindada), whose name is also transliterated as A-na-đà-tẩn-trà-đà. A wealthy and generous man who lived in Raajagraha at the time when `Saakyamuni was teaching. He was known for giving food and clothing to those in hardship ("orphans and the lonely elderly") and was revered by his contemporaries. He was a key figure in the acquisition of the land that was used for the building of the first temple. His real name was Sudatta - Tu-Đạt.

CHỨC (chức vụ):(1) To be employed, employment. (2) Work, job, office. (3) Technique, skill.

CAN (gan): The liver--thus, something essential.

CAN TÂM (tim gan, điều cốt yếu): Essential, important, fundamental.

CHÍ (đến):(1) To reach, to arrive at, to extend to. (2) Very, extreme. (3) The greatest, the best, the ultimate. Highest class or rank. (4) Reach, attain, result in, lead to.

CHÍ NHẤT THIẾT XỨ (bậc thứ 4 của Thập Hồi hướng) (đến khắp mọi nơi): 'Arriving in all places' The fourth stage of the 'ten dedications of merit' in the path of bodhisattvahood. The stage where the bodhisattva enters all Buddha-lands, and cultivates practice together with all Buddhas.

CHÍ TÂM (hết ḷng): (1) To pay close attention; to concentrate. (2) A sincere mind; sincerity; one's true intention.

CẢI (sửa đổi): (1) Change, modify, convert, renew, renovate, reform, mend, rectify, amend, revise, improve, examine. (2) Be renewed, be renovated, be rectified, etc. (3) Again, anew.

CÔNG (tấn công): (1) Attack, assault. (2) To apply oneself to; to work at. (3) To study, to research.

CỐ (lư do, cho nên, xưa cũ):(1) Reason, cause, circumstances. (2) Therefore, consequently. (3) Especially, intentionally. (4) Old, ancient, formerly, prior.

CỨU (cứu):(1) To save, to succor, to aid. To help, fix, repair. To put an end to; to stop.

CỨU HỘ CHÚNG SINH, LY CHÚNG SINH TƯỚNG (một địa vị tu tập của Bồ tát, 1 trong 10 địa vị hồi hướng): The first stage among the 'ten dedications of merit' of the path of the bodhisattva. The stage where one, while using the mind of no aspects to save sentient beings, is still separated from the aspects of 'not-yet-saved' beings.

CẢM (dám): To dare, to presume, to venture.

CHỈNH NGHI (sửa soạn lại y phục trước khi làm lễ): See.???.

CHỈNH DUNG (sửa soạn lại dung mạo): To tidy the appearance; shaving, fixing the hair, etc.

CHIÊU (sáng sủa): Clear, clearly.

CĂN (gốc, chỉ giác quan): (indriya) 'Workings', 'mechanism', 'faculty', 'ability.' (1) The Căn of plants and trees implies their ability to grow and develop and in still life into their trunks and branches; it is in this sense regarded as “root." (2) The term also has the meaning of 'organ'--that which gives rise to perception. Therefore it is used as a name for the five sense organs -Ngũ căn. These five organs are invisible and are created by transformation of the four elements -Tứ đại, and have the ability to see, hear, and so forth. Though they are invisible and pure, they do theoretically occupy space, and are therefore able to be classified as 'form' elements in the classification system of the Fa-hsiang school. (3) Ability, capacity, nature, faculty, of which there are generally sharp, average and dull. The particular capabilities that a certain individual has for understanding a certain level of teaching and attaining enlightenment. See Cơ (chi). (4) That which stimulates awakening in human beings, namely, the 'five roots' of faith, effort, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom.

CĂN TRẦN (nội tâm và ngoại cảnh): The (six) cognitive faculties and their objects. The six objects are considered to be the external cause of affliction, and are therefore referred to negatively as 'dust,' or 'dirt.'

CÁCH (đến, hiểu, thấu đáo):(1) To ascertain, to investigate completely and thoroughly. (2) To arrive, to come to, to get to; (3) To hit the mark; to grasp the principle of. (4) To correct. (5) A rule, a limit, a pattern, a principle. (6) Wise, intelligent, sagely. (7) To resist, to attack.

CÁCH NGÔN (lời nói có giá trị từ xưa): Wise sayings.

CHIÊN ĐÀN (một loại cây): A transliteration of the Sanskrit/Pali candana. It is a tree whose bark is used as a medicinal herb, as well as for incense. (naka p="838")

CỰC (tột cùng): (1) Very, exceedingly, highest, most, quite. (2) Highest rank or grade. (3) Ultimate realm, highest matter. (4) To reach the end of; to push to extremities. To exhaust, to finish, to complete.

CỰC QUẢ (quả vị cùng tột): 'Ultimate result.' Perfect realization. The true awakening of the Buddha, as the result of causal practices.

CỰC LẠC (thế giới của Đức A Di Đà): “Ultimate bliss;" a description of the Pure Land of Amitaabha Buddha.

CƠ:(1) The key, main point, pivotal point to something. Most basic thing. Pivotal affair. (2) Mechanism, works, device. Means, instrument, motive (power), agent (yantra). (3) Working(s), function, action, motive. An opportunity, occasion or condition of the mind. Shifting mental attitude, especially in Zen language. (4) A sign or indication of a manifest object before it appears. The ability for something to be produced upon contact with something else. Sign, indication, omen, symptom. (5) A spring, an impulse, chance, opportunity, occasion. (6) The mental/spiritual ability, which as a result of devout Buddhist practice, suddenly manifests upon a shift or a change in the Buddhist teachings. Talent, ability. The capacity or temperament of the practitioner. The religious predisposition of sentient beings. (7) The person being taught. (vineya). (8) Human beings, sentient beings (aa`saya). (9) Quick, nimble, agile. (1) Changes, motions; the moving power of.

CƠ TIÊN (trước khi hoạt động): The state of things before they demonstrate themselves in their activity.

CƠ NGHỊ (sự tính toán):(1) The function of the mind to be in accord with goodness. (2) Sentient beings. (3) According to the capacities of sentient beings.

CƠ CẢM (sự cảm ứng tùy theo căn cơ): refers to.???, the various individual capacities of sentient beings, and (chien) refers to.???ä, the awareness of the Buddha to the needs of sentient beings and his response to them. The relationship of the Buddha's grace according to the merits of each individual person.

CƠ GIÁO (căn cơ và giáo pháp): The ripeness of the faculties of sentient beings matched with the teachings of the Buddha.

CƠ DUYÊN (điều kiện may mắn):(1) Motive, opportunity. (2) The opportunity related to the mental condition of the person one is interacting with. (3) Sentient beings. (4) In Hua-yen, the good and evil qualities in the constitution of people. (5) A term referring to condition of being guided directly by a Buddha or a great master (especially in Ch'an). (6) In Ch'an Buddhism, making use of opportunities and according with conditions. (7).???; words that are recorded during a “dharma-battle" between two Ch'an masters, and passed on to others for later study.

CƠ YẾU (điểm then chốt): An important or pivotal point. The most profound meaning. A critical moment or situation.

CƠ LOẠI (chúng sinh):(1) The variation in the faculties and abilities of sentient beings. (2) Sentient beings.

CA-LỢI (phiên âm của Kali):(1) A transliteration of the Sanskrit kali. Kali-yuga, which in early Indian cosmology is the present evil age. (2) The goddess Kali.

CA-LỢI VƯƠNG (tên một vị vua cổ xưa): A transliteration of the Sanskrit kalinga-raja ("evil king"), also written in Chinese as.???. King Kalinga was an evil king of the distant past gradually dismembered `Saakyamuni (in an earlier incarnation) in order to test his power of endurance. Kalinga is mentioned in the Diamond Suutra, but the full story is contained in earlier Pali materials.

CHỈ (dừng, một pháp tu):(1) To stop, to finish, to end. (2) To cause to stop; to bring to a halt. To cease, cessation. A limit. To rest in. (3) Only. (4) To stop harmful activities. (5) Stabilizing meditation, or concentration meditation as contrasted to analytical meditation -Quán.

CHỈ TRỤ = AN TRỤ:  Calm abiding; `samatha, (upasthita).

CHỈ TÁC NHỊ TR̀ (dưng và làm; dừng điều ác, làm điều thiện): “Two observances of doing and not-doing." Two ways of maintaining or cultivating goodness. One is by negating of stopping evil, the other is by creating or doing good actions.

CHỈ TỨC (chấm dứt):  (1) To bring about the cessation of suffering. (2) A Chinese translation of the Sanskrit `samatha -Xa-ma-tha (she-ma-t'a). (3) A Chinese translation of `sramana -Sa-môn.

CHỈ TR̀ = CHỈ TÁC:  Doing good by the practice of ceasing to do evil. Keeping the precepts that are concerned with restraint.

CHỈ PHẠM (lỗi lầm do không làm những điều cần làm): To be wrong, or create bad karma by “not-doing" at the time when there is something positive to be done.

CHỈ BỆNH (bệnh dừng cho rằng dừng hẳn mọi vọng niệm th́ thể nghiệm chơn tâm): The “sickness" (imbalance) of overly emphasizing stabilizing meditation, and believing that it in itself can lead to enlightenment. This problem is discussed in Chapter 11 of the Yu"an chu"eh ching (T. 842.17).

CHÁNH: (sa.myak). (1) Exact, right, correct, upright, true, straight. (sat). (2) To rectify, to correct, to adjust, to regulate. (3) A level, even shape (`saata). (4) 'accordance' (nyaana). (5) True nature, nirvaana. (6) The basis of correct knowledge (pramaana). (7) Truly, correctly. (8) Principal, chief, as opposed to secondary.

CHÁNH TRUYỀN: The correct transmission of the Buddha-dharma from teacher to student.

CHÁNH THỤ = CHÁNH ĐỊNH:(1) Samaadhi, mental unity. To gain a state of concentration (samaapatti). (2) A vow or oath (vrata).

CHÁNH TÂM TRỤ (1 trong 10 Trụ; Trụ thứ 6): The “Abiding of Correct Mind." The sixth of the Ten Abidings -Thập Trụ.

CHÁNH NIỆM:(1) 'Correct mindfulness', 'correct thought'. One of the Eightfold Path. Nien refers to continual mindfulness without lapse. To continually keep (something) in mind. To be removed from evil thought and be mindful of the Buddha-way (sa.mprajaana, pratismrta, smrti, sa.myak-smrti). (2) To abide in veracious thought. To rectify the mind and hold to its true form. To be mindful of reality and not to be taken in by appearances. (3) To skillfully remember affairs without lapse in memory. In Pure Land teachings, the Mind of True Reliance on Amitaabha Buddha.

CHÁNH PHÁP:(1) True principle, true reality, true dharma. (2) The teaching of reality; the true teaching; the buddha's teaching. (3) The period of the true teaching, as opposed to the latter two periods of the semblance teaching and the degenerate teaching.

CHÁNH NGHĨA:(1) The traditional or accepted viewpoint of one school or sect. (2) The correct meaning or interpretation.

CHÁNH KIẾN: 'Right view,' 'correct view.' the view which complies with the Buddhist teaching of causality. One of the items of practice in the Eightfold Holy Path.

CHÁNH GIÁC:(1) Awakening, enlightenment. The awakening of the Buddha. 'Correct awakening.' Awakening to true reality. (Pali sa.mbodhi; Skt. abhisa.mbodhi). (2) A person who has awakened to reality. A Buddha, tathaagata.

CHIẾU (soi):(1) To illumine, reflect, shine on. (2) Illumination, efflorescence. (3) To look after. (4) To understand completely. (5) According to; as; seeing that. (6) Photograph, figure, shape, form. (7) Proof, verification.

CHIẾU LIỄU (biểu lộ, chiếu sáng): To manifest. To enlighten.

CHIẾU DIỆU (soi sáng): Shine on, shed light on, illuminate. Shine brightly.

CHIẾU LÂM (soi đến): (1) To illuminate the surrounding area from a high place. (2) A powerful man in a high position influences the people.

CHIẾU KIẾN (soi thấy): Shed light on, illuminate. To observe clearly; to determine by seeing; to come to understand.

CAM (ngọt): Sweet; sweetness. One of the “five flavors." (1) Sweet, pleasant. (2) Voluntarily, willingly.

CAM-LỔ (LỘ): (1) The nectar (amrta, soma) of the gods, which wards of old age and death. (2) A metaphor for the teaching of the Buddha. (3) Originally, the Sanskrit a-mrta means 'no-death.'

CHÂN (thực, đúng) ¹ GIẢ:(1) True, actual, real; pure, undiluted, undefiled; correct. (2) Really, truly, completely. (3) Way, path. (4) As it is; naturally.

CHÂN NHƯ (chân lư, bản thể của sự sống): (tathataa); 'true thusness.' Things as they are. For something to be as it is. The establishment of reality as empty. 'Reality-nature', the nature of existence. (4) Universally pervading principle. The existence of the mind as true reality. 'As-it-is-ness.' The source of all existence.

CHÂN NHƯ VÔ VI (# CHÂN NHƯ) (1 trong 6 loại vô vi theo Duy Thức học): 'Suchness.' One of the six unconditioned existences (dharmas) in Consciousness-only theory. True reality is the real nature of all existences, yet Chân Như is called an 'unconditioned existence' due to the notion that even the awakened wisdom of the Buddha is in itself not really 'true reality', since the wisdom of enlightenment is classified as a conditioned existence.

CHÂN NHƯ TƯỚNG: The eighth of the 'ten dedications of merit' of the path of the bodhisattva. The stage where the bodhisattva, using the wisdom of the middle path, clarifies existence and non-existence, and sees that everything is the reality-realm.

CHÂN VỌNG (thật giả): Truth and falsity. That which arises conditioned by ignorance is falsity, that which arises conditioned by religious practice is truth.

CHÂN VỌNG GIAO TRIỆT (thật giả xen lẫn nhau): Interpenetration of the true and the false. (Awakening of Faith).

CHÂN THỰC: (uttama-artha, tathaatva, tattva). (1) The form of something, the way it is. (2) True and not false. (3) Substantial, full, complete. (4) Substance, essence. (5) The most lofty truth. (6) The true or real teachings.

CHÂN THỰC HẠNH (Hạnh thứ 10 của Thập Hạnh): 'Practicing reality' 'attaining to the true principle.' The tenth of the 'ten practices' stages in the path of bodhisattvahood.

CHÂN ẢNH:(1) True shape, true form. (2) The painted or carved image of a famous saint.

CHÂN TƯỚNG (sự thực): The truth, the facts, the real situation.

CHÂN GIÁC ĐẠI SƯ (tên người): Chen-hsiao Ta-shih. See Tuyết Phong Nghĩa Tồn -Hsu"eh-feng I-ts'un.

CHÂN QUYẾT (bí quyết chân thực): The most profound meaning of true reality.

CHIÊM: To look, to see. Observe. Look around, survey (vyavalokita). Naka 842a

CÙ-ĐÀM (phiên âm của Gautama).

CẤM (không cho phép): (1) Prohibition, ban. (2) To prohibit, forbid, repress, restrain, abstain from.

CẤM GIỚI: Precept, commandment, instructions, regulations. Abstaining from wrongdoing, avoiding evil. The rules given by the Buddha. The regulations that practitioners should adhere to. Also pronounced in Japanese as kinkai (`sik.saa-pada).

CẤM TÚC (không cho phép đi đâu): “No walking." During the three month meditation retreat, the practitioner does not take a single step out of the monastery.

CHỦNG (loại, trồng): (1) Seed, grain; cause, origin. Used metaphorically in Buddhism; see íq ( chung-tzu) (biija). In the school of Consciousness-only, latent karmic power. (2) To plant, to sow. (3) A species, class, type, a sort, a predisposition. (4) To spread, propagate.

CHỦNG TỬ (hạt giống): 'Seeds' of all mental and physical actions which are stored in the aalayavij~naana. The two hindrances, by the power of their manifestation, permeate the aalaya-vij~naana and become stored there.

CHỦNG TÍNH (ḍng giống): 'Seed nature.' Also.??? (gotra). The predisposition of people; the temperament or nature of religious practitioners; the predisposition for buddhahood.

CHỦNG TRÍ (trí huệ của Phật): The perfect buddha-wisdom that fully knows every single thing in existence - Nhất Thiết Chủng Trí. Omniscience.

CHỦNG CHỦNG: (citra, citrataa, naanaa, vicitra). Various, diverse, varied. All sorts (shades, kinds, manner) of; every sort, manifold, multifarious, sundry.

CHUNG NAM ĐẠI SƯ # ĐẠI SƯ THIỆN ĐẠO: Chung-nan Ta-shih. Another name for Shan-tao -Thiện Đạo ( Shan-tao). Chung-nan is the name of the mountain monastery where he lived and taught.

CHUNG NHI PHỤC THỦY (hết rồi bắt đầu lại): Finish and start over again. In the Mahaayaana suutras usually a bodhisattva gives his question to the Buddha three times, each time repeating the question.

CƯƠNG (giềng mối):(1) Rope, cord, string, line, cable. (2) A bond, a tie. (3) Laws, principles.

CƯƠNG YẾU (những điểm quan trọng): An outline of a doctrine, text, etc. The essentials of a school, teaching, etc.

CHÆ (mục tiêu): (1) Sweet, tasty. (2) Object, aim, gist. (3) Teaching, instruction. Purport, theme. (4) Skillful.

CẢNH NHÀN (tên người): Gyeonghan-(1299-1375) A prominent Goryeo Seon monk; also known by the dharma-name of Paegun. He was initiated into Buddhism by.??? and was contemporary and colleague of the renowned T'aego Pou.

CANH (đổi thay) ; c̣n đọc là CÁNH (lại): (1) On the contrary, instead, rather. Anew, afresh, again. Still more, further. (2) In Buddhism Canh is sometimes equivalent to the term 'contact' which is one of the twelve limbs of conditioned arising (spar`sa). (3) To receive the sensation of suffering.

CHƯỚC (sáng tỏ, đốt, nướng): Brightly, shiningly, clearly.

CHƯỚC NHIÊN (sáng rỡ): (1) To burn, fire, scorch. (2) Clear, bright. (3) Hot.

CẦU (xin): (1) To seek, to search for, to look for, wish for, pray for, ask for. (2) To pursue fully and deeply; to completely finish, accomplish. (3) Equal, even. (4) A synonym for Thụ(shu) (vedanaa) “feeling," the seventh of the twelve conditions.

CHÚ (rót vào, chuyên chú, chú ư, chú thích): (1) Pour into, pour on, flow into, fill, add to. The mind flowing in a certain direction. (2) To exegete; to write a commentary on a text.

CỬ (nâng lên, nêu ra): (1) To raise, to elevate with the hands. (2) To begin, to initiate, to move, to recommend, bring forward. (3) All, the whole.

CHUẨN (mực, mức): (1) A water level. Level; to read a level. (2) A standard, criterion, norm. (3) To imitate, make alike. (4) To determine, calculate. (5) Equal, same.

CÁI (che, cái dù): (1) To cover, hide, conceal. (2) a cover(ing). (3) Umbrella. (4) Maybe, probably, possibly. (5) Now, why, why not, what do you think about.. (6) To build, erect. (7) To affix a stamp or seal. (8) “Now.." “However..”. Often used interchangeably with.??? and.???.

CÁT ĐẰNG (dây mơ rễ má): Arrowroot vines and wisteria vines. A metaphor for entanglement and confusion.

CA-ĐA-DIỄN-NI- TỬ (tên người): Kaatyaayaniiputra of Kashmir. Author of a number of seminal Consciousness-only texts, including the Fa-chih lun Phát Trí Luận.

CA-CHIÊN-DIÊN (tên người): Kaatyaayana, Mahaakaatyaayana. One of the ten principal disciples of `Saakyamuni. He is recorded as having been an excellent dialectician and explicator of difficult Buddhist teaching.

CA-CHIÊN-DIÊN A-TỲ- ĐÀM (tên sách): Kaatyaayana abhidharma. An alternative title for T 1543.

CA-TỲ-LA-VỆ (địa danh): Kapilavastu. The hometown of `Saakyamuni Buddha, which was the headquarters of the `Saakya clan which he was born from. Located in present-day Nepal.

CA-DIẾP (tên người) (tên một vị cổ Phật): Skt. Kaa`syapa. (1) A Vedic sage to whom numerous hymns, particularly creation hymns, are ascribed. (2) The Buddha of the world-age preceding the present one. (3) Mahaakaa`syapa, a brahman of Magadha, who became one of the principal disciples of `Saakyamuni and who convoked and directed the first council, whence his name, “chairman" is derived. (4) The sixth of the seven buddhas of the past.

CA-DIẾP TAM HUYNH ĐỆ (ba anh em ông Ca-Diếp): See Tam Ca Diếp.

CÁCH:(1) Be separated, separate from. To make space. (2) Distance, interval, gap, gulf. (3) To close, shut, cover, stop up, obstruct. Divide, partition. (4) To differ. To separate, interpose, screen. Become estranged.

CHƯỚNG (trở ngại):(1) Obstacle, hindrance, impediment. That which obstructs enlightenment. (2) Resistance, opposition. (3) To hinder, obstruct, interfere. See Nhị Chướng.

CHÚNG (nhiều, nhiều người, một nhóm người):(1) Many, a great number, a myriad. A crowd, many people. All. (1) Audience, congregation, assembly (parsad). (2) Company, circle, group (naikaayika). (3) sa.mgha. Defined variously as the harmony existing between three or more, four or more, five or more people. Practicing monks; disciples. (4) People in the world, all people. All (jagat).

CHÚNG ĐỔNG PHẬN (mẫu số chung, yếu tố chung): (sattva-saamya, dharma, nikaaya-sabaagha) 'Commonality of sentient beings.' One of the 24 elements not concomitant with mind in Consciousness-only theory.??? means 'to resemble.' The fact that all human beings possess common characteristics is called 'human commonality.' The power of human beings to be human beings, and accordingly, to be distinguished from dogs, cats, etc. In the same way the commonality of dogs, cats, etc. is established. This is also true of vegetable and mineral life. The fact that a human being, in the middle of his life, cannot suddenly change into a dog or cat, is due to this power.

CHÚNG ĐỔ # ĐỔ CHÚNG (một tập thể người tu): A general name for a Buddhist priest.

CHÚNG SINH: “Sentient being." (1) All beings. In Buddhist scriptures, sentient beings are mentioned in contrast to buddhas, as those who are still bound in the suffering of sa.msaara, who are not yet enlightened; in this meaning, synonymous with.???, which means “regular person," or “worldling." On the other hand, it is the awareness that is present in sentient beings--exactly their “sentiency" which is the quality of buddhahood itself. Therefore there is the Mahaayaana doctrine of “all sentient beings are originally buddhas." (2) After the time of Hsu"an-tsang, this term was translated into Chinese as Hữu t́nh -"having sentiency." In the Nirvaana-suutra, it is clearly stated that 'sentient beings' means all things, even those things that we would normally consider inanimate, such as minerals, and that all of these things possess the Buddha-nature.

CHÚNG HIỀN (tên người): Sa.mghabhadra. Lived in Northern India during the fifth century c.e.

CHẨN (đoán): (1) To look, to see, to reflect upon. (2) Diagnose, analyze, investigate, divine. (3) To inform, let know.

GIỚI (răn, khuyên, cấm):(1) Admonish, warn, prohibit, advise against. Advise. (2) A precept, a command, a commandment.

CHIẾU (lệnh vua ban xuống):(1) Decree, imperial edict. (2) To decree. (3) To say, to inform. (4) To teach, to guide.

CAI (bao quát):(1) Combine, embrace, include. (2) The said.., the respective. That, the; belong to. (3) To have. (4) Ought, should, fated to be.

CAI LA (bao gồm): To collect all together without leaving or missing anything.

CẬT (hỏi kỹ): (1) Reprove, rebuke, censor, accuse, blame, scold, upbraid. (2) Stop, prohibit. (3) Control, regulate, govern, adjust, rectify.

CÁO (cho biết):(1) To enjoin, to order, to inform a superior. (2) To grant, as a title of honor. (3) To tell, inform, advise, warn, teach.

CUỐNG (lừa dối): To deceive, to trick. (maayaa, `saathya): 'deception'. One of the lesser defilement elements as listed in the Abhidharmako`sa-bhaasya, one of the twenty secondary defilements in the doctrine of the Fa-hsiang school. The mental action of deceiving others by lying to them; acting virtuous when lacking virtue, adorning base qualities so that they will appear as excellent qualities. A sub-function of ignorance and covetousness.

CHƯ (các):(1) Many, all, various, the various; myriad. A plural indicator. (2) This; with this, using this, concerning this. (3) Locative: in, at, on, etc. (4) A question marker.

CHƯ PHÁP (các pháp): (sarva-vastuuni, sarva-dharma); 'all dharmas'. All the elements that make up an individual. All things.

CHƯ PHÁP ĐẢN DANH TÔN (tông phái cho rằng muôn pháp chỉ là tên mà thôi): The teaching that all dharmas are only names.

CHƯ HÀNH VÔ THƯỜNG (mọi vật đều vô thường): All things are in a state of incessant change. All conditioned things are in continual motion.

CHỨNG: 'Realization,' 'actualization.' (1) Awakening. To clarify. To know clearly within oneself, without a doubt. To manifest the unsurpassed principle within oneself. To witness, or prove (saak.saat-karana). (2) To realize the result; to attain the fruit; to reach to; to experience (adhigama). (3) A witness. (4) To realize, to certify.

CHỨNG ĐẮC: 1) To gain, to get, acquire. To realize, to perfect, consummate; to come to (adhigama). (2) To experience, realize or comprehend directly (praapti-saak.saat-krti). (3) Awaken, undergo enlightenment.

CHỨNG TỰ CHỨNG PHẦN (chủ thể tự nội quan): 'Rewitnessing aspect'. One of the four aspects of perception in Consciousness-only theory according to Dharmapaala. The function of consciousness of cognizing the fact that it has perceived an object. Also, checking prior awareness for its validity.

CHỨNG NGHIỆM: (1) To bear witness; to verify. (2) Verification, proof, guarantee.

CHẤT:(1) Disposition, nature, quality, personality. (2) Matter, substance, elements, essence. (3) Real, true, honest. (4) To promise. (5) To question, to verify. To call as a witness. (6) To confront, to present oneself. (7) A pledge, a pawn.

CHẤT NGẠI (trở ngại): 'Material obstruction.' The inability to occupy the same place at the same time (a special quality of 'form' (ruupa). One thing obstructing another thing. Material hindrance.

CHUYỂN (quay, đổi): (1) To come up, to arise. To function, unfold, develop. (2) To exist, to appear (vartate, pravartate). (3) To transform, to change, to become. (4) To revolve, to turn (pravrtti, pravartaka).

CHUYỂN Y (sự biến đổi):(1) The conversion, revolution or transformation of the basis of our deluded existence. The conversion of defilement into nirvaana (aa`sraya-parav.rtti). (2) In Consciousness-only, the transformation of the aalaya-vij~naana.

CHUYỂN THẮNG (chuyển thành tốt hơn): To transform or change into something better.

CHUYỂN THỨC (đổi Thức): “Changing consciousness" “transforming consciousness" “karmic consciousness." (1) Manifestly functioning consciousness. The other seven consciousnesses as distinguished from the aalaya-vij~naana. Unenlightened, deluded consciousness that is manifested concomitant with the objective realm. (2) The transformation of the defiled consciousness into pure consciousness

CHUYỂN THỨC THÀNH TRÍ (đổi thức thành trí): 'transforming consciousness and gaining wisdom.' Transforming the defiled eighth, seventh, sixth and prior five consciousnesses and gaining respectively, “Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom," “Wisdom Knowing the Equality of All Things," “Marvelous Observing Wisdom," and The “Wisdom of Completion of Actions.”

CHUYỂN CHUYỂN (đổi măi): To pass from hand to hand. Go rolling along. Roll around; repeatedly.

CỐT (xương): (1) Bone(s); (2) Marrow, the heart, the essence, the gist. (3) The shell of a turtle. (4) Hard. True, correct.

CAO:(1) High, tall, exalted, aged, high-priced, a high note, of high quality. Great, large, excellent. (2) To heighten, to enlarge, to raise up. (3) Height; a high place. Above.

CAO SÚC THỤ: See Đa La Thu.

CHÂM-CỨU: Acupuncture and moxibustion. The practice of this art by Buddhist monks was prohibited. (2) Medical treatment.

CỐ (nh́n lại, nhớ lại):(1) To care for, to regard, to look after. (2) On the contrary, conversely, then, therefore. (3) To think, reflect, mull over, review, to look back on. (4) To wait. (5) Only. (5) As well as; also.

CHƯỚNG TRỌNG: To be bound or restricted by afflictions. Affliction, defilement (kaaya-cittayor akarmanyataa).

CỐNG (dâng, cho, người thi đỗ):(1) Tribute; to bear tribute. (2) Support, finance. (3) To levy a tax. (4) The best quality, superior. (5) The surname of a disciple of Confucius.

CUNG (cơ thể): The body; oneself.

CHÂU (1 ṿng, 1 tuần 7 ngày):(1) To turn, revolve, spin. (2) A week, seven days. (3) Round, circular. A circle.

CHẤN (lắc mạnh, quẻ Chấn):(1) To shake, excite, terrify. (2) To quicken, to arouse. (3) The 51st of the I-Ching hexagrams.

   
 

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Cập nhật: 12-09-07

 
 

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